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So, Daoism was a retroactive grouping of ideas and writings which were already at least one to two centuries old, and which may or may not have been ancestral to various post-classical religious movements, all self-identified as , but accepts contemporary Daoists' assertion of continuity between classical and post-classical, "philosophical" and "religious" movements and texts. But the hybrid nature of Daoism is not a reason to discount the importance of Daoist thought. 65), fills their bellies, opens their hearts and empties them of desires (ch. A sagely ruler reduces the size of the state and keeps the population small. The ruler is a shadowy presence, never standing out (chs. When the ruler’s work is done, the people say they are content (ch. This picture of rulership in the DDJ is all the more interesting when we remember that the philosopher and legalist political theorist named Han Feizi used the DDJ as a guide for the unification of China. When the DDJ says that rulers keep the people without knowledge, it probably means that they do not encourage human knowledge as the highest form of knowing but rather they encourage the people to “obtain oneness with the .