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Location: The Middle East, bordering Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km Capital: Tehran Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast Population: 80,840,713 (2014 est.) Ethnic Make-up: Persian 51%, Azeri 24%, Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%, Kurd 7%, Arab 3%, Lur 2%, Baloochi 2%, Turkmen 2%, other 1% Religions: Shi'a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 2% Government: Islamic republic Iran has a heterogeneous population speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic, and Turkic languages.